Wednesday, August 26, 2020
An examination on remote solace ladies for the Japanese troopers during World War II. (more) Japanese Comfort Women free exposition test It is evaluated that somewhere in the range of one and 200,000 female sex slaves had to convey sexual administrations to Japanese troopers, both previously and during World War II. These ladies were known as solace ladies and the Imperial Conference, which was made out of the sovereign, delegates from the military and the primary Cabinet clergymen, endorsed their utilization by Japanese warriors. Walkom) The term comfort ladies alludes to the casualties of a planned orderly arrangement began and executed by the legislature of Japan to subjugate ladies thought about sub-par and subject them to rehashed mass assaults, said Michael D. Hausefeld, one of more than 35 legal advisors in his firm speaking to the previous sexual detainees in a legal claim as of now pending against the Japanese government. (Whirlpool) Since antiquated occasions, whores in Japan decided to sell their bodies either for family, destitution, or for sparing her better half and her kids. Pretty much, their penances were viewed as positive. We will compose a custom paper test on Japanese Comfort Women or on the other hand any comparable point explicitly for you Don't WasteYour Time Recruit WRITER Just 13.90/page In any case, being compelled to become comfort lady by Japanese is viewed as negative. The distinction between the Japanese whores and solace ladies is that the solace ladies didn't decide to be caught as a sex slave and they were not paid for what they did. In 1931, when the Japanese armed force attacked Manchuria, Ã¢â¬Å"comfort housesÃ¢â¬ showed up. These solace houses were made to give the Japanese fighters outlets for their sexual needs. In the first place, there were just a couple of solace houses yet after the Nanjin Massacre happened in 1937, a lot more were included, essentially to each place that the Japanese were positioned. (Walkom) After the Japanese troopers butchered a great many Chinese individuals in the Nanjin Massacre, they brutally assaulted an impossible number of ladies. Subsequently, hostile to Japanese slants developed and it got more diligently to completely possess these grounds. The administration set up comfort houses to diminish turmoil and give the around 2,000,000 warriors a spot to fulfill their sexual needs. The Japanese needed more whores to flexibly the necessities of the fighters so they dispatched regular people to create comfort houses. At that point, just a little level of Japanese ladies were activated to Ã¢â¬Å"workÃ¢â¬ in comfort houses and they were all whores in any case. Most of the solace ladies were really Korean ladies, who were coercively taken from Korea to support the requirements of the Japanese fighters. After the war, the Japanese government decimated all proof of their contribution in Japanese solace houses, authorizing that business businesspeople were answerable for the development of ladies. Huge numbers of the solace ladies were abducted or tricked into deliberately working in comfort houses. When they were there, they were caught and constrained into prostitution. A few ladies announced that Japanese operators extended to them great employment opportunities or instruction. Others were informed that every family in the town needed to give a girl to the war exertion. Numerous others were offered food, safe house and manufacturing plant employments. The Japanese likewise captured youthful, unmarried young ladies when they had a lack of solace ladies. The periods of the young ladies in the solace houses went from 15 to 19, with the minority exemption of some more youthful young ladies and some more seasoned, wedded ladies. The young ladies were moved between army installations like freight, under overwhelming watchman in armed force trucks, prepares, boat and transport. They had to lose their virginity before showing up at the bases to set them up for having sex with several fighters consistently. Numerous ladies thought about death after this, as they accepted their virginity to be more valuable than life. (Henson) When living in the solace houses, the solace ladies lived in dread and edginess. They couldn't leave, as they were vigorously protected. Every day, they were entered by upwards of 50 fighters, until they were sore and enlarged to the point of not having the option to open their legs. On the off chance that they were tainted with an explicitly transmitted sickness, they got infusions known as Injection 606. Whenever tainted enough occasions, they lost their richness. In Japan, contaminated ladies were slaughtered. Their food was blended in with cyanide, their bodies taken to a cavern lastly, the cavern was exploded with a projectile. The solace houses brought in cash off these ladies and it is accepted that the Japanese government paid them, as the greater part of the officers paid by coupons. When the war was done, the Japanese Imperialist gatekeepers vanished without follow. Most solace ladies portray the experience along these lines, Suddenly, the warriors came no more, and after asking we found that the war had finished. In different areas, as the Japanese submitted Ã¢â¬Å"harikari, the ladies had to do likewise. In extraordinary cases, the ladies were placed in a cavern and exploded. After the war, a considerable lot of the solace ladies were too wiped out to be in any way moved and were taken under the consideration of the American armed force. The vast majority of the ladies were left with no spot to go, as they were in an odd nation with no cash, and were too embarrassed to even consider going home. As indicated by one solace lady, my bodys squandered, in this manner I don't set out return home in dread of being overlooked and looked downward on. Significantly after the war finished, the solace ladies were not free. Their blameworthy personalities and feelings of inadequacy shielded them from getting back and they remained in outside nations. The limited quantity that wedded, were regularly compelled to isolate afterward that they were comfort ladies was known, or they were separated in light of the fact that they couldn't have kids. The casualties are as yet enduring the torment truly and mentally. Beyond what half of them couldn't get pregnant, and the majority of them have narrative illnesses. Moreover, the mental effect on these ladies made them felt themselves grimy, embarrassed that they disrespected themselves and separated themselves from others. They are either terrified of getting hitched, or incapable to request any dedication from their sweethearts. For the individuals who got hitched, their marriage was temperamental and miserable due to their past. Some idea that they more likely than not accomplished something detestable in their past life that they must be rebuffed in this life. (Hicks) They go to rhythms to recite sutras, to admit, to seek after freedom, and they even end it all. Despite the fact that the timeframe they spent at the Japanese army installation was a little piece of their life, what they had encountered caused a serious effect on their wellbeing, marriage, brain, and social adjustment. In spite of the fact that the Japanese government keeps on denying or limit their association with comfort ladies, their barrier is disentangling. A meeting on Japanese Crimes Against Humanity: Sexual Slavery and Forced Labor was held a year ago, in which Japanese specialists conveyed papers which asserted that the Japanese military, the remainder of the administration, and Japanese industry were totally engaged with the choice to give sex captives to the countrys troopers. (Chunghee) Japanese history specialist Hirofumi Hayashi stated: The foundation and improvement of the military solace ladies framework as not just completed by the all out association of each area of the military yet in addition by authoritative apparatus at each degree of the Japanese state what's more, we ought not disregard that Japanese organizations were their accessories. (Chunghee) Researchers from the Center for Research and Documentation of Japans War Responsibilities in Yokohama demonstrated that Japanes e elastic organizations were under government agreement to flexibly 20 million condoms per year to military once the choice had been made to give sex captives to the officers. Rumiko Nishino composed that high-positioning auxiliaries dispatched by Cabinet and sub-Cabinet-level government authorities executed the appropriation of the condoms. The accessibility of condoms to everyone turned out to be nearly nil. (Chunghee) Last year, the Japanese interests court toppled a prior decision that arranges the legislature to remunerate ladies who had to fill in as sex slaves during World War II. The two sides had offered that administering. The offended parties since they thought the remuneration was excessively little, and the administration since they wouldn't pay. Duke) In ruling for the administration, the Hiroshima High Court said stealing ladies to utilize them as constrained workers and sex slaves was not a genuine established infringement. Tokyo has conceded that its wartime armed force had set up whorehouses, and constrained a large number of Koreans, Filipinos, Dutch and Chinese to fill in as whores, yet it has would not repay these casualties. Students of history state upwards of 200,000 ladies were constrained into sexual subjugation during World War II.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
A Decade of Uneasy Peace expositions World War II was the most exceedingly terrible war that was battled in the twentieth Century, and maybe the most exceedingly awful war throughout the entire existence of man. The loss of lives in World War II was an amazing 50-60 million dead (Mitchner, Tuffs Global Forces of the twentieth Century 130). World War II additionally introduced the period of atomic weapons. How did this war come to fruition, and would it be able to have been forestalled? War was unavoidable in 1939 because of the disdain of the German individuals towards the Versailles Treaty, destitution coming about because of the extraordinary wretchedness, the approach of settlement, and Axis hostility during the 1930s. The Treaty of Versailles was the significant settlement finishing military activities against Germany in World War I. The settlement was marked at the Palace of Versailles, close to Paris, on June 28, 1919, and became effective on January 10, 1920, after sanction by Germany and four of the Principal Allied and Associated Powers, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Japan (Mitchner, Tuffs Global Forces of the twentieth Century 22). It was not confirmed by the United States, which made a different settlement of harmony with Germany in 1921 consolidating a great part of the Treaty of Versailles by reference (Mitchner, Tuffs Global Forces of the twentieth Century 42). The lesser Allied forces, aside from China, were additionally parties. Separate settlements of harmony were made with Germanys partnered, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey (Mitchner, Tuffs Global Forces of the twentieth Century 30). Rather than making harmony notwithstanding, the Treaty of Versailles caused disappointment and scorn (Elson 29). France felt that triumph was not accomplished, and chose to make progressively military collusions to close Germany. Italy felt cheated, on the grounds that the crown jewels of war vowed to her when Italy left the Triple Alliance to joined the Triple Entente in 1915 was not gotten. Germany felt the most deceived, as all the wrongs in the war was nailed to her. This dissatisfaction would in the end lead to the well known help of Hitler (Elson 31). One of the poin... <!
Monday, August 17, 2020
HT@MIT Academic Resources Recitation The last two years at MIT has been a large exercise in learning how I learn best. What I found after Interphase was that lectures alone didnt cut it for me and that certain materials didnt sink in until after recitation and office hours. This is a compiled list of the resources that Ive been using since Interphase to make my life a little bit easier. Recitation This is usually your first line of defense when you leave lecture wondering if the classroom had changed without your knowledge. But this is also the resource youll have the most variable experiences. Some people will swear that recitations are the worst possible waste of your time while others swear by them. Ive been at both sides of the spectrum and here are a few things that Ive learned. 1. Shop around for the TA that works for you and not necessarily the most convenient time. The best TA Ive ever had (for 6.006) had his recitation at around 4-5 and he made me absolutely fall in love with the class (shoutout to Tim P.(but to be fair, every TA for this class was amazing)). 2. Try to go to recitation, its extremely easy to justify missing but it can be really useful and relevant for psets and test. Often times attendance wont be taken but the material covered is fair game for tests. Also, keep in mind that your TAs will grade your psets and tests and its much easier to fail a faceless name. Office Hours Professors and Teaching Assistants(TA) alike will hold office hours weekly to aid you with the problem sets and any questions you have that are out of the scope of lectures and recitations. Here are my tips for Office Hours. 1. Avoid the night before the pset is due office hours. Often times these OH are filled to the brim and youll find it difficult to get a question in edgewise. TAs also look to avoid these OH and they can be understaffed. 2. Find OH a few days before the pset is due and try to go every week. Its also best if the TA that is staffed is your recitation leader. This accomplishes two things, you create a routine that gives you a few silent hours to have personal help and you find a group of fellow PSETers to work with. 3. Try to go to the professors OH, its one of the few times youll get such personal instruction from the people who write the pset. Seminar XL These are mini recitations held for a variety of freshman classes that give you more exposure with the problem solving process with students who have gone through the class. For me this was invaluable for 8.02 because learning theory is wonderful but its important to have as much time DOING problems as possible. HKN Tutoring Now this resource is only for course 6 classes but it is absolutely wonderful. At the beginning of the semester you say which classes you would like tutors in and they match you with their volunteers. A bit worried my freshman spring semester I signed up for both a 6.01 and 6.042 tutors and it was absolutely wonderful. Being able to sit for an hour a week with a fellow undergrad whos gone through the class is great. Last semester I doubled up again and signed up for tutors in both 6.005 and 6.046. Sadly they didnt have enough tutors or I would have also had one for 6.033. This is one of the few resources that Ill swear by and continue to use through graduation. Math Learning Center While I never took advantage of this resource personally Ive had a few friends who will swear by its usefulness so I thought Id add it. These are essentially an extra set of office hours for your math classes with some wonderful undergrad and grad students in course 18! Life becomes a lot easier when you learn to ask for help, so better sooner than later. I didnt get into a routine I was happy with until last semester so hopefully this post helps you all get there a bit sooner.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
A Blast From the Past The way to better the world is to go back to the past and learn the ways of those who came before and learned from their mistakes; sort of like time traveling. When going back in time and comparing the ancient civilizations of Rome and Greece to today, the root of our knowledge are greatly influenced on the minds who have lived at that time. Some may ask which civilization had the most impact on United States and the world? Many would say that the Romans had the most impact on United States and the world and some may contradict and say Greece had the most influence. However, Greece influenced the world and United States the most in tremendous ways. Greece gave the United States the influence to start itÃ¢â¬â¢s firstÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Athenian democracy was established as a result of continuous reorganizations with a concept in mind of individual rights for citizens. An excellent quality of the Athenian democracy was that citizens were elected annually and allowed to f urther a longer term unless an awry situation, then an abrupt change of government can be acted upon on. Direct democracy helped the citizens of Athens to develop intellectually, and broaden their minds, and cultural awareness. Aspiring to the Athenians, the United States followed in their footsteps and started a direct democracy in the 1630s to strive to achieve a balanced land. Once a mind has reached a level of imagination, people will start to think for themselves and begin to acquire a high curiosity of what is seen to the naked eye. With the Athenian democracy promoting a development of intellect, philosophers and philosophy began to emerge along with their ideas and share it to the world. In the Article, Ã¢â¬Å"Ancient Greek Culture and Civilization,Ã¢â¬ the author states, Ã¢â¬Å"The Philosophers-Socrates, Plato and Aristotle contributed to the way of thinking,human life, and science.Ã¢â¬ Ancient Greece philosophy focused on the aspect of reason and question. It had an important influence on modern philosophy as well as modern science. The three main philosophers of Greece were Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They contributed to the expansion of medieval Muslim
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"If we accept that a mother can kill her own child, how can we tell other people not to kill each other? Any country that accepts abortion is not teaching its people to love, rather, to use violence to get what they wantÃ¢â¬ -- Mother Theresa If the people who have worked on finding a cure for cancer had been aborted, where would the world be at today? Abortion could be the cause of a lot of great people dying before their life even began. How would anyone know if the person was killed before given a chance? Abortion should beÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The attempts at these few laws were then shut down by the Supreme Court in 1992. The Supreme Court said it went against the bills which stated the women get the last say in what happens to their body (Ballaro. Wagner). In 2006, South Dakota re-visited the legality of abortion. They created a law enforcing doctors to inform people, who want abortions, about their decision before performing it on them. In doing so these women realized what they were doing and found that it was wrong and in turn no longer wanted to do it. Then in 2009, North Dakota accepted the bill that says unborn children are proven to be people in the beginning of fertilization (Chittom). Abortion is the killing of a person no matter how it is looked at. There is nothing that makes it right, and it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t entirely safe for anyone involved in the procedure. There are many dangers of ending a pregnancy that can harm a human physically and emotionally (Wilson). Psychologically women express emotions of sadness, depression, guilt, anxiety, numbness and shame after realizing what they have done. These emotions can be known as Ã¢â¬Å"post-abortion syndromeÃ¢â¬ and can turn into a long-term problem (Chittom). These women feel these emotions because they finally have time to sit and think about what their life could have been if they kept the child and then they realize that the object they removed from their body was a person inside of them. Women also have acted out violently and putShow MoreRelatedThe Death Of The Abortion3267 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesearning a minimum wage. The night before abortion, she could not sleep and she could not stop thinking about the baby inside of her. As she went to the abortion clinic, she was so nervous that she was shaking and could not fill out her paperwork properly. After the abortion procedure, days passed and she still could not think clearly. She always had nightmares about her baby that she just aborted. She began drinking heavily and fell into depression. Abortion causes not only physical complicationsRead MoreAbortion And The Death Penalty1778 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesIssues such as abortion and the death penalty are very divisive within the United States populace because they allow for the government to have a say on when life begins or should be taken away. In addition, these issues have both moral and religious disputes that add to the heated debates. In recent years, however, the usage of euthanasia to end the lives of those suffering with terminal illnesses has gotten mainstream traction. Although the usage of euthanasia remains illegal in the United StatesRead MoreAbortion, The Death Of A Loved One, And Terror980 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Death Ã¢â¬Å"At that time, we were completely overwhelmed, the burden was more than we could bear, in fact we told ourselves that this was the end. Yet, we believe now that we had the experience of coming to the end of our tether that we might learn to trust, not in ourselves, but in God who can raise the dead.Ã¢â¬ (2Corinthians 1:8b-9 PH) We all know that humanity will submit to GodÃ¢â¬â¢s plan, death. Its ripple effect varies from one person to the other based on a personÃ¢â¬â¢s own experience. Death mayRead MoreAbortion Matters of Life and Death Casts Dispersions on Both Pro-Abortion and Anti-Abortion Debates1980 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAbortion A. Jonathan Glover, in his article Matters of Life and Death casts dispersions on both pro-abortion and anti-abortion debates citing them as too knee-jerk emotional reactions diminishing the inherent complexity of the other side (1. Glover, CC2006, p. 0110). Glover comprehensively addresses the key points of both sides of the abortion debate and evaluates their inherent virtues, especially for those who hold these opinions, then methodically points out its flaws. Ultimately, Glover comesRead MoreLife, Death, and the Political Issues Surrounding Abortion2674 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesLife, Death, and the Political issues surrounding Abortion Few issues have embodied such controversy as abortion has. The various people involved in the abortion debate not only have strong beliefs, but each group has a self appeal that clearly reflects what they believe to be the essential issues. The abortion supporters see individual choice as central to the debate: If a woman cannot choose to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, a condition which affects her body and possibly her entireRead MoreAbortion Is The Leading Cause Of Death For Children Under The Age Of One1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagescurrently considered murder. Abortion is the leading cause of death for children under the age of one. The illegalization of abortion has been a hot topic ever since the landmark 1973 Roe vs. Wade Decision. The controversial debate has divided a whole nation into two Ã¢â¬Å"teamsÃ¢â¬ , pro-life and pro-choice. The debate can be identified raging in all arenas of life; political, private, media, work places, etc. I think the slaughter of the unborn s hould be outlawed in the US. Abortions should be illegal becauseRead MoreAbortion : Causes And Effects1738 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesafter having an abortion. People are led to believe abortion is safe, and that it will only fix your problems rather than create more or different problems. Research may suggest otherwise, and proposes that abortion can cause severe depression, breast cancer, and even death (Brind, 1996; Notman, 1976; Reardon, 2000). Abortion related depression can be caused for many different reasons. The three most common reasons for depression are guilt, shame, and anger. Breast cancer from abortion is believe toRead MoreShould Abortion Be Legal?883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion is has been a hot topic, since federal law protected a woman s right to choose an abortion in the court case Roe v. Wade decision in 1973 (Ã¢â¬Å"How Did Abortion Become Legal?Ã¢â¬ ). Roe v. Wade was a woman named Norma McCorvey who was not married but was pregnant who wanted an abortion. The Texas law denied her request to get an abortion, so she filled a federal lawsuit to have the Texas law declared unconstitutional. She argued that it was her right to decide if she wanted to get an abortionRead MoreThe Death Of A Fetus987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAccording to the Oxford dictionary, abortion is the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus by natural causes before it is able to survive independently. Abortion has perhaps been a highly p oliticized over the past several decades. The major political parties in the United States have adopted distinct positions on this issue. When the death a fetus occurs naturally, it is called a miscarriage. When the loss of a fetus is caused intentionally, it is regarded as a significant moral and societal issueRead MoreThe Effects of Abortion That You Dont Know About Essay1110 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Effects of Abortion That You Dont Know About Many women that choose to have an abortion do not realize that it is a dangerous surgery with serious side effects. These side effects are both physical and psychological. Having an abortion is unnatural and interrupts this function of the human body. Ã¢â¬Å"The womenÃ¢â¬â¢s body naturally resists the abortion, causing physical and emotional problemsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Who does Abortion Affect?Ã¢â¬ ). Almost all of the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Sociology Ã¢â¬â Family Unit Ã¢â¬â Marriage and Divorce Most people argue that the family is in Ã¢â¬ËcrisisÃ¢â¬â¢. They point to the rapidly increasing divorce rate, cohabitation, illegitimacy and number of single parent families. What is happening to Marriage? Marriage has increased in popularity, reaching a peak in 1971. We will write a custom essay sample on Sociology Marriage and Divorce or any similar topic only for you Order Now Since then there has been a significant decline in the number of marriages, from 459000 in 1971 to 250000 in 2001. There is a decline in first marriages where neither partner has been married before. But there is a growing number of remarriages, in which one or both partners have been divorced; these marriages constitute 15% of all marriages in 1971 and 40% in 1996. The average age at which people first marry has steadily increased in recent decades. Since 1971 it has risen from 24 to 30 for men and from 22 to 28 for women. By 1998 there were relatively few young people who were married. Of those under the age of 24 just 3% of men and 7% of women were married. More than one third of all 18 Ã¢â¬â 49 year old women are now single. Is Marriage still the Norm? Despite all the arguments about the decline of marriage, it continues to be the case that most people in Britain grow up and form a nuclear family for part of their adult life. Most couples who get married or have stable cohabitation relationships have children. The family unit is still mainly one in which children are brought up by two Ã¢â¬ËparentsÃ¢â¬â¢. The majority (71%) of young people live in families headed by a couple. Just less than a quarter (24%) live in single parent households. The majority of lone-parent families (90%) are headed by women, and the major reason is separation or divorce from the male partner, although some women are single or widowed. Cohabitation is most likely to be found among those aged 25 Ã¢â¬â 34 years. Over one in five (22%) in this age group currently cohabit. The majority (59%) of those who live together subsequently go on to marry that partner. In some respects marriage is more popular because people marry more often. The percentage of remarriage has risen from 14% in 1961 to 40% in 1996. Cohabitation Living together as a couple is no longer seen as Ã¢â¬Ëliving in sinÃ¢â¬â¢. Read alsoÃ Sociology and Social Integration. Increasingly the idea of cohabiting is being viewed as respectable. Two thirds (67%) of the British public now regard cohabitation as acceptable, even when the couple have no intention in getting married. The idea that people should get married if they have children is also fading away. In 1989, 7 in 10 people held this view. By 2001 the proportion had fallen to just over half (54%). Nor is there much support these days for the belief that married couples make better parents Ã¢â¬â only 1 in 4 (27%) think this is the case. Marriage Patterns for African-CaribbeanÃ¢â¬â¢s and Asians Research carried out at Essex University in 2000 indicates that only 39% of British-born African-Caribbean adults under the age of 60 are in a formal marriage compared with 60% of white adults. Moreover this group is more likely than any other group to inter-marry. The number of mixed-race partnerships means that very few African-Caribbean men and women are married to each other. Only one quarter of Caribbean children live with two black parents. There is also a tradition of women living independently from their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s father in the African-Caribbean community. This could be partly explained historically, from the days of slavery, when husbands and wives were sold to separate plantations. But Wilson (1987) argues that a black woman may be reluctant to marry (or live with) a man whose chances of getting / keeping a job are low and make him an unreliable source of income for themselves and their children. Consequently half of Caribbean families with children are now single parents. Marriage in Asian families whether Muslim, Hindu or Sikh is mainly arranged and consequently there is little inter-marriage with other religions or cultures. Relationships between Asian parents and their children are also very different, Asian children tend to respect religious and cultural traditions and they feel a strong sense of duty to their families and especially their elders. Taken as a whole young British Asians have more choice and say than previous generations. Their current situation is probably not dramatically different from that of young no-Asian adults who, while choosing their marital partners on the basis of romantic love, often marry people very similar to themselves in terms of background factors such as social class and educational qualifications. Parental influence may be less direct than in an arranged marriage, but parents can show disapproval on Ã¢â¬ËinappropriateÃ¢â¬â¢ boyfriends or girlfriends. What are the Patterns in Divorce? From 1971 to 1996 the number of divorces has more than doubled. In 1991 there were 350000 marriages but 171000 divorces meaning that there were nearly half as many divorces as marriages. The proportion of marriages, which are remarriages, has also been rising, for example 15% of all marriages in 1961 were re-marriages for one or both partners; by 1991 this figure has risen to 36%. Britain has the highest divorce rate in Europe according to official EU statistics (Eurostat, June 2001). Each year, 2. 7 people per thousand of the population get divorced in Britain compared with the EU average of 1. 8 per thousand. Who Divorces? Young spouses and young marriages are most at risk. A personÃ¢â¬â¢s age at marriage is strongly associated with the likelihood of divorce. Generally speaking, the older people are when they marry, the less chance they have of divorcing. Couples who marry in their teens are almost twice as likely to divorce as those who marry between the ages of 20 and 24. The divorce rate also varies by the amount of time the marriage has lasted. For example, in 1979 nearly half of all divorces occurred within the first 10 years. One investigation (Thornes and Collard, 1979) found that of all marital separations (rather than legal divorces), 60% occurred before the 10th year of marriage. Social class is also closely related to the incidence of divorce. The divorce rate for unskilled husbands is more than four times that for professionals and for the unemployed, almost five times that for the professionals. Patterns in Marriage and Divorce Feminist sociologists see the trends as a sign of the lack of satisfaction provided by traditional patriarchal marriage, with individuals seeking alternative types of relationships and living arrangements. New Right thinkers have seen the trends as a sign of the breakdown of the family and have argued for a return to Ã¢â¬Ëtraditional valuesÃ¢â¬â¢. They suggest that because of the easy availability of divorce, people are no longer as committed to the family as they were in the past. Changes in legislation which have made divorce easier but also social changes in which the law reflect are seen as the main causes of the increase in divorce rates. Have Women Broken up the Family? The position of women has changed in a number of ways, such as the wife does not have to put up with an unsatisfactory marriage; they are not expected to be socially subservient to their husbands. Women now have more independence and are in a better financial position if they were to want a divorce; they are no longer totally reliant on their husbands. It was stated that women in general are less satisfied with their marriages than men. In the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s women initiated the majority of divorces. Growing Secularisation Secularisation refers to the declining influence of religious beliefs and institutions. Goode and Gibson argued that secularisation has resulted in marriage becoming less o a sacred, spiritual union and more a personal and practical commitment. Evidence that supports this is that 60% of marriages today do not involve a religious ceremony. Changing Social Attitudes Divorce has become more socially acceptable and there is less social disapproval and stigma attached to divorces. It no longer hinders careers through a public sense of scandal and outrage. As a result of this people are less afraid of the consequences of divorce and are more likely to end an unhappy marriage. Functionalists such as Talcott Parsons and Renoald Fletcher argue that the increased value of marriage may have caused a rise in marital breakdown. As people expect and demand more from a marriage and expect it to be perfect. Fletcher argues that a relatively high divorce rate may be indicative not of lower but of higher standards of marriage in society. Privatised Marriages Allan argues that the family has become increasingly defined as a private institution. The wider family, and society at large, do not have the right to interfere in family life and therefore the family unit is not supported by its integration into a wider social network, which means family problems cannot be so easily shared. Love and Marriage Ã¢â¬â Why are Arranged Marriages Stronger? Within an arranged marriage people have more realistic expectations than those who marry for love. People who support arranged marriages suggest that love is something that develops overtime, where as romantic love is likely to change into something less exciting, or disappear altogether Sociology Ã¢â¬â Family Unit Ã¢â¬â Births and The Ageing Population Births One of the strongest trends has been the rise in illegitimacy. Illegitimacy rates are rising, as more people have children without being married. Some of the stigma associated with illegitimacy no longer exists. This is countered by the New RightÃ¢â¬â¢s assault on unmarried mothers, who have been the scapegoat to a certain extent by the media who blame them for the modern failings of society. Unmarried mothers may not be that different to nuclear families as some of these children born outside of a marriage are born to a couple who cohabit or are in a stable relationship, so will therefore have the same advantages / life as a nuclear family child. It is just that the mother and father / couple are not legally married. More and more women are deciding not to have children, as theyÃ¢â¬â¢d rather focus on / have a career. Having a career may also be the reason for women having children later on in their lives. The Ageing Population The population as a whole are getting older as people are now living longer. This could be seen as a negative or a positive thing. According to the negative view this gives a greater dependence ratio whereby the working population have a greater burden to take care of those not working. Increased pressure on hospitals, social services and pensions will lead to a greater tax burden. On the positive side, it can be argued that since older people are now more likely to stay fit and healthy they may become an important part of our families (childcare for grandchildren) and as part of the voluntary workforce. Ginn and Arber found that the level to which older people could maintain their independence and play a constructive part in society depended to a large extent on their social class, gender and ethnicity. The notion of ageing itself is a socially constructed concept that varies from culture to culture. The retirement age itself has moved several times and still varies between men and women reinforce the notion that old age is in itself a social construction. How to cite Sociology Marriage and Divorce, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Question: What's the Patient Psychological Mechanisms? Answer: Introduction The report focuses on the analysis, diagnosis and recommendation of treatment of a patient. The report focuses on the use of the Cognitive Behavior Theory (CBT) for the case study and recommendations of treatment of the given patient. The CBT is based on the concept of working together of cognition (the thoughts), emotions (the feelings) and behavior (the actions) (Kendall Hollon, 2013). In the given case how these three determinants and their study shows the mental health of the patient. In the study, the past of the subject along with the social environment and the emotional balance help in the diagnosis. The resulting treatment method helps in treating his issues using the therapies of CBT. Analysis The analysis of the patients history shows many impressionable events, which must have a great impact on the psyche of the patient. The constant imagination of the death of his father and the marriage of his mother to another man must have greatly affected him. The imagination of beaten up by his stepfather, the inability of his mother to protect him affected him negatively and affected his behavior of self-preservation and it further aggravates his negative thoughts. The constant failing of his own marriage is because of the imaginary troubles he has faced, he over dramatizes the situations he has faced. The effect of the medicine on his sexual prowess has further aggravated his depression making him more upset about his condition and harming his relation with his wife. The failure of his marriages he has faced is affected by the constant fear ingrained in him. The subject has the habit of blaming the situation he is facing as the divine wrath. This ideology makes him powerless to f ace situations and find a solution to them. The idea of the divine wrath can be related to the patients strict religious beliefs and a habit of self-blaming (Park Slattery, 2013). This habit can be related to his imagination of being powerless in the hands of his father and therefore blaming himself for whatever issues he was facing. Diagnosis Based on the history and the current emotional status of the patient, there may be different results of the analysis of the patient. The patients constant overflow of emotion and imagining scenarios can be a result of depression (Alpert Fava, 2014). Depression makes him think he is incapable of taking actions and have conclusive decision-making capabilities. The patient evidently also suffers from depression because of the traumatic and negative impact of the life he imagines he has faced resulting in feeling unimportant (Gilbert, 2016). The depression can be the reason of all the negative thoughts and his emotional reasoning of feeling unimportant in the social circle stemming out of the failed relationships and the emotional misbalance arising out of them. All the effects of human faults and his own drawbacks are put on divine justice to avoid taking any action about them. The issues faced by him are a complex of emotion and behavior which is a resultant of a number experiences he has faced through his life. Treatment There are different types of treatments in the Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) for the various issues faced by the patient. Aaron T. Beck initially developed the CBT for treatment of eating disorders (Boland, Tansey Brooks, 2015). There should be mix of individual and social approach to treat the issues of this patient. Cognitive reconstructing can treat the depression faced by the patient. The cognitive reconstructing of the emotions helps in the treatment of depression. The self-help technique is used in this type of treatment (Cuijpers, et al., 2013). To treat the depression of this patient the process of automatic thought record can be used (Neimeyer Feixas, 2016). In this technique, the patient has to write or record his taught along with the chain of reactions and their results. The context of thought, the chain of the thought and the result of the thought is recorded for the self-evaluation of importance and validity of the thought. This helps the patient in constructing his behavior to focus on constructive thought processes thus helping in depression. It also helps the psychiatrist in analyzing and understanding the thinking mechanism of the patient. The constant record of the patients thought process would help in counseling the patient for the various emotional fluctuations he is facing. A plan can be made for the patient for doing his regular tasks so that he finds pleasure in them and it helps in his depression. The process can be done in different parts by the patient Cause: The patient records the cause of the unpleasant emotion felt by the patient, the reason that initiated the thought process. Automatic thoughts: The causal thoughts gave birth to which automatic thoughts and how real the automatic thoughts seem. Emotions: The emotions felt as the effect of the automatic thoughts are recorded. The intensity of the emotions is also recorded so the patient can see it later. Adaptive Response: this analyses the thought processes that led to the complex behavior. A set of questions to be answered to reason the thought process and the percentage of each response. Outcome: This evaluates in percentage the belief of the patient on the adaptive response he gave. It also records the present emotions and their intensities. It helps in the evaluation of the success or failure of the process by the psychiatric help he is taking. The process of Pleasant Activity Scheduling can also be used, which a process to schedule a series of activities which the patient can look forward to (Orgeta, Brede Livingston, 2017). These can include simple activities, which help the patient feel pleasure like watching movies, or going on a trip. The pleasures felt by the patent will help them neutralize depressing emotions. Conclusion Therefore, in this report the case of the patient has shown a number of psychological issues arising out of his life experiences. The detailed analysis of his past and his present symptoms show a number of different issues including depression. The traditional treatments of the issues according to CBT have been recommended. The use of these methods will help in the patients psychological development References Alpert, J. E., Fava, M. (2014). Handbook of chronic depression: Diagnosis and therapeutic management (Vol. 25). CRC Press. Boland, E. A., Tansey, T. N., Brooks, J. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy. Counseling theories and techniques for rehabilitation and mental health professionals, 90. Cuijpers, P., Berking, M., Andersson, G., Quigley, L., Kleiboer, A., Dobson, K. S. (2013). A meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioural therapy for adult depression, alone and in comparison with other treatments. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(7), 376-385. Gilbert, P. (2016). Depression: The evolution of powerlessness. Routledge. Kendall, P. C., Hollon, S. D. (Eds.). (2013). Cognitive-behavioral interventions: Theory, research, and procedures (Vol. 21). Academic Press. Neimeyer, R. A., Feixas, G. (2016). The Role of Homework and Skill Acquisition in the Outcome of Group Cognitive Therapy for DepressionRepublished Article. Behavior therapy, 47(5), 747-754. Orgeta, V., Brede, J., Livingston, G. (2017). Behavioural activation for depression in older people: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, bjp-bp. Park, C. L., Slattery, J. M. (2013). Religion, spirituality, and mental health.